FIELDWORK
1997 – ongoing

The ongoing Kawa Excavation Project

Downloads …
SITE GUIDE in Arabic >
[ 8.8Mb pdf ]
SITE GUIDE in English >
[ 5.1Mb pdf ]

Publications funded by the Qatar-Sudan Archaeological Project

The Egyptian name of Kawa, Gematon, strongly suggests that it was founded by the pharaoh Akhenaten in the 14th century BC although the earliest structural evidence known from the site is a temple built under Tutankhamun.

The town was abandoned probably in the 4th century AD. It was a major urban centre covering approximately 40 hectares with a build-up probably of 11 metres of stratigraphy in the centre of the site.

The current project is conducting a detailed contour survey of the town, is excavating and planning buildings, and is investigating the adjacent cemetery.

The top of Taharqo’s bark stand as found resting on the stone floor of the sanctuary chamber in Building A is shown in the main picture. Taharqo was the Kushite king who reigned 690-664 BC and the probable builder of the shrine shown in the second image.

The third image shows one of two kilns in the lower town, of a type which is extremely rare in the Nile Valley but can be closely paralleled in the North-Western provinces of the Roman Empire.

In the winter of 2013, a new phase of activity began at Kawa under the umbrella of the Qatar-Sudan Archaeological Project. As part of this project there is a focus on ensuring the long-term survival of the site and on making it more accessible to both Sudanese and foreign visitors. One of the first steps in achieving these aims has been the production of a site guide in both Arabic and English — available here for download.

Downloads …
SITE GUIDE in Arabic >
[ 8.8Mb pdf ]
SITE GUIDE in English >
[ 5.1Mb pdf ]

The post-excavation and publication project is expected to take several more years and it will be some time before the final reports are ready. In the meantime, the Society has decided to make available, as soon as they are completed, downloadable draft reports (see below). Much relevant research that is required to complete these reports is not included but at least some basic data can be consulted.

Final report
It is expected that the final report on the excavations at Kawa will include the sections listed below, each of which may be either a monograph or one or more monographs. Also listed are the specialists currently involved in the research.
INTRODUCTION
Derek A. Welsby
SITE GAZETTEER
Derek A. Welsby
EXCAVATION REPORTS
Derek A. Welsby, Mahmoud Suliman Bashir
POTTERY
Isabella Welsby Sjöström
SMALL FINDS
(unassigned)
LITHICS
(unassigned)
ARCHITECTURAL STONEWORK
Derek A. Welsby
ARCHAEOBOTANY
Caroline Cartwright et al
ARCHAEOZOOLOGY
Penille Bangsgaard et al
PALAEOPATHOLOGY
Daniel Antoine et al
MUD SEALINGS
Irene Vincentelli
Draft reports currently available

The following draft reports are in pdf format. It must be stressed that they are not the final word and will undoubtedly be augmented or modified before the printed report is produced.

Excavation report : Excavations in the Temenos Gateway, Area (TG5) [2.1Mb], Derek A. Welsby
Excavation report : Excavations of Building Z1 [625k], Mahmoud Suliman Bashir and Derek A. Welsby
SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY
Macadam, M.F.L. 1949. ‘The Temples Of Kawa I: The Inscriptions’, London.
Macadam, M.F.L. 1955. ‘Temples Of Kawa. II. History and Archaeology of the Site’, Oxford.
Welsby, D.A. 1993. ‘Kawa Survey Project’, Sudan Archaeological Research Society Newsletter 3-7.
Welsby, D.A. 1998. ‘Survey and Excavations at Kawa, the 1997/8 season’, Sudan & Nubia 2, 15-20 … read now >
Welsby, D.A. 1999-2002. ‘Survey and Excavations At Kawa 1997-1998’, Kush 18, 183-190.
Welsby, D.A. 2000. ‘The Kawa Excavation Project’, Sudan & Nubia 4, 5-10 … read now >
Welsby, D.A. 2001a. ‘An early Kushite shrine at Kawa in northern Sudan’, Egyptian Archaeology 19, Autumn, 25-27.
Welsby, D.A. 2001b. ‘Excavations within the Pharaonic and Kushite site at Kawa and in its hinterland, 2000-2001’, Sudan & Nubia 5, 64-70 … read now >
Welsby, D.A. 2001c. ‘Kushite buildings at Kawa’, British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan 1, 32-45 … download pdf at www.britishmuseum.org
Welsby, D.A. 2002a. ‘Ein Schrein ans frühkuschitischer Zeit in Kawa’, Der Antike Sudan 13, 85-91.
Welsby, D.A. 2002b. ‘The Kushite Town and Cemetery at Kawa, the 2001-2002 season. Survey and excavations’, Sudan & Nubia 6, 32-37 … read now >
Welsby, D.A. 2002c. ‘Survey and Excavation in Sudan’, Archaeology Abroad November, 43-46.
Welsby, D.A. 2006. ‘Kawa Kushita e Soba medievale’, in A. Castiglioni and A. Castiglioni (eds), Nubia. Magica Terra Millenaria, Firenze, 222-225.
Welsby, D.A. 2008. ‘The Northern Dongola Reach Survey. Excavations at Kawa, 2007-8’, Sudan & Nubia 12, 34-39 … read now >
Welsby, D.A. 2009. ‘Houses and Pyramids at Kawa, excavations 2008-9’, Sudan & Nubia 13, 72-77 … read now >
Welsby, D.A. ‘Excavations at Kawa, 2009-10’, Sudan & Nubia 14, 48-55 … read now >
Welsby, D.A. ‘Excavations at Kawa, 2010-11’, Sudan & Nubia 15, 54-63 … read now >
Welsby, D.A. 2013. ‘Surveys at the Fifth Cataract and on the Sudan Military Railway and excavations at Kawa, 2012-13’, Sudan & Nubia 17, 131-136.